Summary key features

Lactuca species Gene pool Chromo somes Life history* Breeding system** Flower color*** Native distribution
aculeata 1 18 A S Y Middle East
altaica 1 18 A,B S Y Central & Northern Asia
azerbaijanica 1 18 Iran
dregeana 1 18 A,B S Y South Africa
georgica 1 18 B,P S Y Caucasus
scarioloides 1 18 B Y Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey
serriola 1 18 A,P S Y N-Africa & large parts of Asia and Europe
saligna 2 18 A S Y N-Africa, SW-Asia & large parts of Europe
acanthifolia 3 18 P Y Greece, Turkey
alpestris 3 P Y Greece (Crete)
aurea 3 16 P Y Southeast Europe
longidentata 3 16 B,P Y Italy (Sardinia)
orientalis 3 18,36 Y Large parts of Asia
quercina ssp. quercina 3 18 A,B S Y Caucasus & large parts of Europe
quercina ssp. wilhelmsiana 3 18 B,P S Y Caucasus & Eastern Europe
sibirica 3 18 P O B Northern Asia & Northern Europe
tatarica 3 18 P O B,P Eastern Europe & large parts of Asia
viminea ssp. chondrilliflora 3 18 B Y Southern Europe & Northern Africa
viminea ssp. ramosissima 3 18 B Y Southern Europe & Morocco
viminea ssp. viminea 3 18 B O,S Y SW-Asia, N-Africa & large parts of Europe
virosa ssp. cornigera 3 18 A,B S Y Morocco
virosa ssp. livida 3 18 A,B S Y Spain
virosa ssp. virosa 3 18 A,B S Y Northern Africa & large parts of Europe
watsoniana 3 P B Portugal (Azores)

*Life history: A=annual; B=biennial; P=perennial

**Breeding system: O=outcrossing (allogamous); S=selfing (autogamous)

***Flower colour: B=blue; P=purple; Y=yellow