Achene characteristics

Lettuce

Summary achene characteristics

Lactuca species Achene size (mm) Achene colour Number of ribs Beak size Pappus size (mm)
aculeata Brown 4½ mm ≥ 3½
altaica 6-10 Brownish; greyish 5-10 As long as body
azerbaijanica
dregeana Yellowish brown 5-6 (x2) 3-4½ mm 4-5
georgica 6-7 Dark violet; black 7 (x2) 2-2½ mm 3-3½
scarioloides Pale brown 4-4.7 mm 5½-7
serriola 6-8 Pale brown; olive grey 5-9 (x2) 3-3½ mm 3-7
saligna 3-8 Dark grey; dark brown 7-8 (x2) 5
acanthifolia 8-9 Yellowish brown 5-7 ½ to as long as body
alpestris 7-8 1½-2 mm 3
aurea 7-8 Brown 10 1-1½ mm
longidentata 7-10 Black 7-12 ⅓ of body
orientalis 7-8 Brownish 5-7 (x2) 2-3 mm 7-8
quercina ssp. quercina 7-8 Black 5-8 <½ of body 5-6
quercina ssp. wilhelmsiana 6-7.2 Black 9-14 ≥½ of body 5-6½
sibirica 4-5 Olive ¼ of body 5-9
tatarica 4½-6½ Yellowish; olive; blackish 5-7 1-1½ mm 8-9
viminea ssp. chondrilliflora 7-10 <½ of achene
viminea ssp. ramosissima
viminea ssp. viminea 9½-15 Blackish 14 4½-6 mm 4½-10½
virosa ssp. cornigera
virosa ssp. livida ≤7 Black 5-6 ≤ size of body
virosa ssp. virosa 6-10 Blackish 5 As long as body
watsoniana 4-6 Brownish green (yellow spots) 5-8 ⅓-½ of achene